Saturday, September 30, 2017

Why do Some Countries Steal History and Heritage from Other Nations?

This is an addendum to the previous article: German Saints Stolen by the Slovenes

The previous article exposed the problem of theft of historical figures by Slovenes, but did not address the question of ‘why’. Why do Slovenes steal celebrities from other nations? More specifically, why do they steal famous historical figures of German and Italian origin?

Revisionism in Slovenia

The Slovenes, having been mostly illiterate and confined to small peasant villages for so many centuries, with no independent country or civilization of their own, do not have much of a national history. Consequently, there is a lack of famous figures who can be upheld as national heroes or as representatives of the Slovene nation. Indeed, the concept of a Slovene nation did not emerge until the 19th century, and the country of Slovenia itself did not exist until 1991.

It comes as no surprise therefore that modern Slovenes have chosen to rewrite their own history and kidnap celebrities from other nations, in order to embellish their history and artificially enhance the prestige of their newly-formed country.

Other obvious motivations for these thefts includes a desire to suppress controversial events of the recent past, such as war crimes and ethnic cleansing, as well as a desperation to prove the “Sloveneness” of certain territories that today are part of Slovenia, but which historically were not Slovene. To do this they must ignore and erase the history of those who preceded them, or else adopt and usurp the history of those who preceded them.

Slovene Revisionism: The Italians of Istria and Julian Venetia

In the case of Istria and Julian Venetia, the people who preceded them are the Italians. Prominent Italian men, such as the theologian Pietro Paolo Vergerio and the physician Santorio Santorio, both natives of Capodistria (then part of the Republic of Venice, today Slovenia), are stolen away from Italy; their names are translated into Slavic and they are deceptively presented as “Slovenes”. The same Capodistria is called “the oldest Slovenian city”. In reality, the city did not become Slovene, neither politically nor ethnically, until the second half of the 20th century.

In this way, besides adding to their national prestige, the Slovenes are able to convince newer generations of Slovenes – and also attempt to convince others – that this territory has always been Slovenian, thereby rationalizing or even denying the ethnic cleansing of indigenous Italians at the end of the Second World War, and justifying their annexation and occupation of Italian territories which had no cultural or historical connection to Slovenia.

Slovene Revisionism: The Germans of Styria

In the case of Styria, both Slavic and Germanic tribes had invaded and settled this territory since the Early Middle Ages. This region therefore had a mixed population for many centuries, with Slavs predominantly living in the smaller towns and countryside villages of Lower Styria, and Germans primarily inhabiting Upper Styria and the larger cities of Lower Styria, such as Marburg.

The architecture, cuisine and overall culture of Styria clearly shows the predominating German influence over the region, and there is very little that can be considered ‘Slovenian’. For almost its entire post-Roman history, the language of administration and culture in Sytria was Latin and German, and all the cultural and urban centres were markedly German, while for most of their history the Slovenes in this region had neither art, nor architecture, nor literature.

Prior to World War I Styria's population was 68% German and 32% Slovene. In 1900 the city of Marburg, the capital of Lower Styria, had a population that was 82.3% German and 17.3% Slovene. After World War I, Lower Styria was annexed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. German cities such as Marburg were Slavicized and renamed. German schools, clubs and organizations were ordered closed by the new Yugoslav regime, and many ethnic Germans fled to Austria. By the end of World War II, Marburg (today Maribor, Slovenia) was almost completely destroyed and the surviving German population was expelled by the Yugoslav Communists in 1945.

Similar events were repeated in other regions of modern Slovenia which historically had a mixed German-Slovene population, such as Carinthia and Upper Carniola. By appropriating historical German figures, such as painters, nobles, ecclesiastics and saints, modern Slovenes have been able to construct a history and fabricate a myth in which these lands have always been purely and exclusively Slovene, entirely erasing German heritage and denying their historical presence.

Revisionism in Croatia

Unfortunately this problem is not limited to Slovenia. Many other young countries, especially in the Balkans, engage in this very same brand of revisionism. Croatian politicians and academics, for example, have usurped virtually all historical Italian figures of Istria and Dalmatia and have proclaimed these men to be “Croatian”, thereby denying the millennial Italian presence in those regions and the Latin civilization which flourished there until the 20th century.

Even though these men originally had Italian or Latin names, spoke Italian and Italic dialects, wrote in Italian or Latin, belonged to Italian culture and often descended from ancient Italian families, the names of all these historical figures have been Croatized by modern Croatian authors. They have even gone so far as to proclaim Marco Polo, King Arthur and Joseph Haydn as “Croats”.

Even the churches, bell towers, palaces and piazzas of Istria and Dalmatia – built by Italian architects in a distinctly Italian style – are now claimed to have been built by Croats. The Italian artworks of the Renaissance are likewise proclaimed to have been produced by artists of the “Croatian Renaissance”, a pseudo-historical time period which never occurred in real history, but which was invented by Croatian nationalist historiographers in the 20th century.

In this way, Croatian text books are able present a falsified version of history in which Istria and Dalmatia were exclusively Croatian since the 7th century, as if Latin and Italian people did not densely inhabit those regions and contribute to its culture and civilization for all those centuries past. The Croats have thus conducted a near-perfect ethnic cleansing, not only killing and expelling the Italian population itself, but also erasing all traces of their historical presence in these lands, while usurping Italian heritage and history for themselves.

Revisionism in Montenegro

Similarly, the Montenegrins have usurped all the historical Italian figures of the Bay of Cattaro, even those who bore Italian names and who wrote exclusively in Italian or Latin, falsely proclaiming them as “Montenegrin Slavs”. Italian Dalmatian authors who flourished under Venice, and who wrote in Italian, are now proclaimed the “founders of Montenegrin literature”, despite having never written a single line in the Slavic language and having no historical connection to modern Montenegro.

Merely because the land in which these men were born and lived is today part of the modern country of Montenegro, they are today presented as belonging to Montenegrin Slav culture and heritage. In fact, the Bay of Cattaro had no connection to Montenegro until after World War I, when the entire region was annexed to the new Kingdom of Yugoslavia and incorporated into the Zeta Oblast.

Montenegro is a very young country. It was first created as a soi-disant independent principality in 1852, although its independence was not internationally recognized until 1878. It became a kingdom in 1910, but quickly disappeared from world maps in 1918 before regaining independence in 2006.

It is not difficult to understand why Montenegro is desperate to forge a history for itself and usurp an older heritage which does not belong to them: they seek national prestige, but more importantly they seek to justify their status as an independent country. For this same reason, the Montenegrin government is currently in the process of artificially inventing a separate “Montenegrin language”, in order to distinguish themselves from their Serbian neighbors.

Revisionism in Serbia

The Serbs frequently and quite recklessly argue that Croats are merely “Catholic Serbs”, thereby denying the existence of Croatian nationhood. Not only do they proclaim all Croats to be Serbs, but they use this argument as a pretext to justify their desire for a Greater Serbia, in which all of Croatia and other nearby territories such as Bosnia would be annexed to an enlarged Serbia.

Revisionism in Albania

Albanians have fabricated an entire ethno-national myth based on Illyrianism, according to which all people from ancient Illyria – including Roman Emperors and the descendants of Italic colonists – were in fact “ancient Albanians”. They further utilize this myth to justify their territorial claims over disputed regions such as Kosovo and the Greek region of Epirus.

Revisionism in Romania

The Romanians have adopted this same type of national myth by proclaiming themselves the descendants of Dacians. According to the most extreme forms of Dacomania, ancient Romania is the cradle of civilization, ancient Romanians invented the wheel, founded Rome and built the Roman Empire. Such outlandish ideas are plainly a desperate attempt to bolster national glory. More practically, this ideology is often utilized to distinguish Romanians from their Slavic neighbours, but most especially to justify the annexation of Transylvania – which historically had never belonged to Romania – and to legitimize the persecution of the Hungarian minority.

Revisionism in Macedonia

The Macedonian Slavs pretend to be the descendants of the ancient Macedonians and Alexander the Great, and deny that the ancient Macedonians were Greek, thereby entirely usurping ancient Greek history for themselves. In reality, the Slavs arrived in Macedonia only in the 7th century, a millennium after Alexander. They utilize historical revisionism not only to justify the existence of an independent Slavic Macedonia, but also to advocate for the annexation of Greek Macedonia from Greece in order to form a United Macedonia ruled by Macedonian Slavs.

The anti-historical notion of a Slavic or non-Hellenic Macedonian ethnicity was a theory advanced by the Yugoslav Communists, who sought to maintain territorial claims against Greek Macedonia and to de-legitimize Bulgarian claims on Yugoslav Macedonia, whose population identified as Bulgarian. Today, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia continues the same State-sponsored rewriting of history, primarily to justify its existence and for the sake of territorial aggrandizement.

Revisionism in Bulgaria

The Bulgarians present themselves as Thracians and proclaim Spartacus an “ancient Bulgarian”. Moreover, posing as Thracians enables them to justify their argument that the entire historical region of Thrace rightfully belongs to Bulgaria.

Revisionism in Hungary

Many Hungarians claim to be descended from Huns, and sometimes claim Attila the Hun was a proto-Hungarian, but so far this myth has had no significant real life consequences.

Revisionism in Poland

Even the Poles have been known to participate in ethnic theft: Nicholas Copernicus, who was born in Prussia to a German family, is recognized by almost all Poles today as a “Polish astronomer”. The territory in which Copernicus was born had a long history of changing hands betweens Poles and Germans, and since the end of World War II the lands of Prussia have remained part of Poland. However, the fact remains that Copernicus belonged to a German family and was not Polish.

The theft of Copernicus represents, first of all, a desire by Poles to find an important historical figure who can represent Polish achievement in science, which is otherwise lacking, and second of all, an attempt to minimize the historical significance of ethnic Germans in Prussia in order to demonstrate the historical Polishness of that land, thereby justifying Poland’s annexation of ethnically mixed territories after the two world wars and the expulsion of ethnic Germans after World War II.

Revisionism in Russia

Russia is perhaps the most successful country in history to participate in a nationwide historical revisionism, having effectively usurped the history of Kievan Rus. Beginning with Ivan the Terrible, the Muscovites changed their collective identity, proclaiming themselves the heirs of Old Rus and changing their name from ‘Muscovites’ to ‘Russians’ in the 16th century. According to this narrative, Vladimir the Great and Olga of Kiev were Russians and therefore the rulers of modern Russia have a right to rule over all traditional Ruthenian lands, particularly modern Ukraine and Belarus.

Revisionism in Greece

Revisionism in Greece takes on a somewhat different form. Rather than claiming that specific historical figures were ethnically Greek – although such claims are made on occasion – many Greeks prefer to take credit for other nations’ achievements by proclaiming that Greeks directly or indirectly influenced other countries. One such example is the myth of Greek scholars fleeing to Italy and supposedly “sparking the Renaissance” after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453.

In reality, Greek refugees had very little impact on the development of the Renaissance in Italy. The early Renaissance was a purely Italian phenomenon, a natural outgrowth of the late medieval Italian city-states, and had already begun more than a century before the fall of Constantinople. The unprecedented flourishing of arts and technology in Italy, and the rise of Brunelleschi, Michelangelo and Da Vinci, can hardly be attributed to Byzantine scholars (who, moreover, never produced anything comparable to the Italian Renaissance in their own homeland).

For several centuries now the Greeks have remained in a state of cultural stagnancy and political irrelevancy. From the medieval to the modern age the Greeks have produced very few notable philosophers, scientists, authors, artists, architects, sculptors or engineers; in recent centuries they have made very few notable technological, scientific, medical, artistic or literary contributions. As a whole, they have had very little impact on Western civilization since the end of the classical age.

The position of modern Greece stands in clear contrast to its ancient counterpart. Such a reality must take its toll on the pride of a population which produced so much in the ancient past. It is not surprising therefore that many Greeks today feel a desperate need to create exaggerated myths and take credit for the achievements of the Italian Renaissance, since they themselves have been unable to achieve such heights since the days of Aristotle.

Revisionism in Western Europe: France

Instances of historical revisionism and national theft can also be found occasionally in Western Europe. For example, the French often claim Clovis and Charlemagne as Frenchmen, even though they were Franks who spoke a Germanic language. Perhaps more notoriously, the French claim Napoleon as a Frenchman, although most are aware that he was born in Corsica to an Italian family.

Revisionism in Western Europe: Spain

The Spaniards sometimes claim Christopher Columbus was a Spaniard, even though most of the world knows he was from Genoa. Spaniards also sometimes proclaim that ancient Roman emperors such as Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius were “Spanish”, or that illustrious Romans such as Lucan, Seneca the Younger and Seneca the Elder were “Spanish”, merely because they were born in the territory of what is now Spain. Moreover, those emperors were known to be descendants of Roman colonial families from Italy who maintained cultural and political ties to Italy through Rome, while Lucan and the two Seneca’s likewise were born into the same colonial family from Italy, namely the gens Annaea who were of Oscan origin.

Such men, born to Italic families who spoke the language of Rome, and who – as Roman colonists – maintained cultural and political ties to Italy, were clearly representatives of ancient Italic civilization, and had nothing to do with the country of Spain or modern Spaniards. Such historical revisionism is little more than an attempt to usurp illustrious Romans – who were not ethnically Spanish – in order to depict the modern Spanish nation as belonging to the ranks of ancient civilization, when in reality Spain was not yet existent and the people of the Iberian peninsula did not begin to develop a distinct civilization of their own until the medieval period, after the fall of Rome.

Revisionism in Western Europe: Germans and Anglo-Saxons

Pseudo-historical ideologies such as Nordicism – according to which all ancient civilizations were created by tall, blonde-haired, blue-eyed superior peoples related to modern Scandinavians, Germans and Anglo-Saxons – used to be very prevalent in the United States and Western Europe, particularly in Great Britain and Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries. However, such ideas were entirely abandoned by all reputable historians and scholars many decades ago.

When they were in vogue, these ideas were utilized for several different motives, among which was a desire for the Germanic peoples to insert themselves into ancient history, as they were conscious of the fact that their ancestors had neither literacy nor arts nor urban centres in classical times, and did not develop any high level of civilization until well into the Middle Ages.

Moreover, their ancestors were often blamed for the collapse of the Roman Empire. By depicting themselves as the founders of Rome and many other ancient civilizations, the Anglo-Saxons and Germans were able to forge an imaginary history in which their own people were the ancient bearers of civilization, instead of illiterate and uncivilized barbarians, while also exonerating their ancestors from the charges that the destruction of Rome was attributable to them.

Concluding Remarks

While instances of historical revisionism and stolen heritage can be occasionally found in Western European countries, it is much less frequent today than in Eastern Europe, especially the Balkan countries where it still takes on a particularly aggressive and even genocidal form, as witnessed by the Yugoslav Wars of 1991-2001 and the ongoing territorial disputes over regions such as Kosovo.

One can argue the reasons why certain countries – often times younger, smaller and eastern – have a tendency to fabricate their histories and appropriate famous figures from other nations.

One can debate about whether or not this phenomenon is psychological and rooted in inferiority complexes, especially after having been subjected to foreign rule for so many centuries; or whether it can be perceived as a struggle for survival or cultural relevancy by smaller nations in the face of stronger or more advanced countries; or whether it is rooted in a desire to justify territorial conquest and persecution of ethnic minorities; or whether it is due to excessive envy and pride; or whether it is merely a result of poor education; or a combination of all these motivations.

The reasons for this phenomenon are certainly open to interpretation and debate. But no one can deny that this phenomenon exists, and that it can become very dangerous if not corrected.

Wednesday, September 27, 2017

German Saints Stolen by the Slovenes

So many famous Italians from Istria and Dalmatia have been stolen by the ex-Yugoslavs in recent years: their names have been slavicized, and their Italian origin hidden and erased by the Croats and Slovenes who have occupied these lands since the end of World War II. Even indisputably Italian figures such as Marco Polo have officially been proclaimed “Slavs” by the Republic of Croatia, in what can only be described as a monumental fraud.

But Italians aren't the only victims of stolen heritage; many men and women of German origin have also been hijacked by Slovene revisionists in recent decades. The list of prominent Germans stolen by Slovene revisionists includes painters, nobles, ecclesiastics and others. In this article we will limit ourselves only to German saints whose identities have been stolen.

St. Albuin von Brixen

Albuin was born in the 10th century in Carinthia (modern Austria), the son of Margrave Albrecht of Carinthia and his wife Hildegard von Stein. His parents both belonged to the Aribonids, an aristocratic family of Bavarian origin.

Albuin was Bishop of Sabiona-Brixen from 975-1006. He was a loyal servant of Emperor Otto II and Emperor Henry II, and accompanied the latter into Italy in his war against the independent Italian king Arduin of Ivrea. In 1004 he was entrusted with ruling over Veldes (today Bled, Slovenia), although there is no evidence he ever visited the town. He died in Brixen (today Bressanone, Italy) in 1006. After his death he was regarded as a saint and today his primary cult is found in Alto Adige, Italy, especially in the city of Bressanone where he is one of the three patron saints.

How is it that Albuin, who was of German background, who spent most of his life in Italy (at that time part of the Holy Roman Empire), in a region populated by Italians and Germans, and never lived a day in the territory of modern Slovenia, is today considered a “Slovene saint” by modern Slovenes? It is because the Slovenes incorrectly claim that his mother Hildegard was a Slovene (see below).

St. Hemma von Gurk

Hemma von Gurk was born c. 995 in Peilenstein, Carinthia (today Pilstanj, Slovenia). She was the daughter of noble German parents: Engelbert and Tuta. Her parents were related to the Bavarian Luitpolding dynasty and were relatives of Emperor Henry II. Her ancestors also included King Zwentibold of Lotharingia, the illegitimate son of Arnulf of Carinthia, who was a member of the Carolingian dynasty.

Hemma inherited wealth through the death of her husband Wilhelm von der Sann, Count of Friesach, who was born into the German Carinthian nobility. Hemma used her wealth to help the poor. She also founded ten churches throughout Carinthia, the most important of which was Gurk Abbey (located in modern Austria). She died in Gurk Abbey on June 27, 1045. She was already venerated as a saint when she was alive. Today she is the patron saint of Carinthia, Austria.

Merely because Hemma von Gurk was born in the territory of what is now Slovenia, the Slovenes today claim that she was a “Slovene saint” and pretend that her parents were “Slovenian nobles”. The Slovene Wikipedia website even categorizes her exclusively as a “Slovene saint” without so much as listing any German category.

St. Hildegard von Stein

Hildegard von Stein was born c. 910 in the Duchy of Bavaria. Her father Aribo von Leoben belonged to the Aribonids, an aristocratic family of Bavarian origin. Her mother was one of the daughters of Chadaloh II, Count of Aargau and Augstgau, who was a member of the German Ahalolfing dynasty.

Her son Albuin was Bishop of Sabiona-Brixen. Hildegard lived in Burg Prosnitza (near Skarbin, Austria) with her husband. She died in the town of Stein im Jauntal (modern Austria) in c. 985.

For many centuries the Slovenes who lived in the nearby villages have venerated Hildegard as a saint, as have the Germans. However, today the Slovenes inexplicably claim that Hildegard is a “Slovene saint” and call her by the name Liharda Kamenska. In the 19th century, the Slovene nationalist bishop Anton Martin Slomšek declared Hildegard the “Mother of the Slovenes”. In this way, a once-pious religious devotion has been perversely transformed into a national theft.

See also: Why do Some Countries Steal History and Heritage from Other Nations?

Sunday, September 24, 2017

Luxardo Maraschino vs. Croatian Maraska

Luxardo Maraschino — vs — Maraska Maraschino

Luxardo is an Italian brand of liqueur most famous for producing Maraschino liqueur. Since 1946 its primary competitor has been Maraska, a Croatian company founded in the former Yugoslavia, and today operating in Croatia. The choice between Luxardo and Maraska is a favourite topic of debate among many liqueur connoisseurs, but for the Luxardo family – the world's leading and oldest producer of Maraschino liqueur – the battle goes far beyond taste.

For Luxardo, the long-standing rivalry with Maraska is not about the taste of liqueur, nor market shares, but about the survival of a family tradition; the painful memories of an entire community wiped out by war and ethnic hatred; a centuries-old cultural heritage stolen and usurped by another people; and an untold story of theft, fraud, torture and murder under the tyranny of Communism: this is the hidden history of the Maraska company and its persecution of the Luxardo family.

The Origins of Maraschino

Maraschino was first invented in Zara, Dalmatia in 1730 by the Italian pharmacist Barolomeo Ferrari and an Italian cafe owner from Dalmatia named Giuseppe Carceniga (Calceniga). Their technique was later developed and perfected by the Istrian-Venetian merchant Francesco Drioli, who was the first to bottle and produce Maraschino on an industrial scale. He founded the Drioli Maraschino company in Zara in 1759, thereby establishing the modern Maraschino industry.

The History of the Luxardo Company

The Luxardo Distillery, built in 1913
Before its destruction in World War II
The Luxardo company was founded in Zara in 1821 by Girolamo Luxardo. At this time Zara was still a city of Italian language, culture and ethnicity, and had recently passed from the Republic of Venice to the Austrian Empire.

Luxardo would go on to become one of the most popular and prestigious brands of Maraschino liqueur in the world. The prestige and acclaim of Luxardo can be measured by the fact that Luxardo Maraschino was served aboard the RMS Titanic during its fateful voyage in 1912.

In 1918, following World War I, the city of Zara was reunited with the Kingdom of Italy. By the 1930's Luxardo became the most important distillery in Italy.

The Destruction of Zara and the Murder of the Luxardo Family

During the course of World War II, Allied bombing destroyed approximately 80% of Zara's buildings. After indiscriminate and repeated Anglo-American bombings in 1943-1944, the Luxardo distillery was almost completely destroyed, as was nearly the entire city of Zara.

The war was very tragic and devastating for the Luxardo family: they lost their distillery, their home and several members of their family. They were but one of hundreds of ethnic Italian families – totaling many thousands of civilians – who were forcibly exiled from Dalmatia as a result of the war. In the end, nearly the entire Italian population of Zara was wiped out through Allied bombings, executions, deportation to concentration camps or exile. While most of the Luxardo family fled to mainland Italy between 1943-1944, some members of the family chose to remain in Zara.

Pietro Luxardo and Nicolò Luxardo II
Murdered by the Yugoslavs in 1944
Upon the arrival of Tito's Yugoslav Communist partisans in 1944, atrocities were committed against the remaining Italian population and the Luxardo family was partly exterminated. Nicolò Luxardo II and his wife Bianca Ronzoni were arrested and brutally tortured before being killed by Yugoslav partisans on September 30, 1944. Nicolò II was drowned in the Adriatic Sea, while Bianca was forced to watch. She was shot to death immediately afterward. Pietro Luxardo, who likewise had refused to leave Zara, was imprisoned by the Yugoslavs on October 30, 1944 and murdered on November 12, 1944. His remains were never found.

Giorgio Luxardo was the sole survivor of the fourth generation. Giorgio fled first to Friuli and then to the Veneto region of northeastern Italy and reconnected with a colleague who had saved the Luxardo recipe book. Perhaps even more fortunately, just prior to the war Prof. Alessandro Morettini of the University of Florence had carried maraschino cherry specimens from Dalmatia to Tuscany, where he founded a cherry tree nursery on university premises. Prof. Morettini graciously delivered these cherry saplings to Giorgio Luxardo after the war.

The Usurpation of Maraschino by Yugoslavia: The Foundation of Maraska

In 1944, before the close of World War II, the Yugoslavs illegally seized all of Luxardo's assets and nationalized them. Assets which were confiscated from all the historic liqueur factories of Zara (Luxardo, Drioli and Romano Vlahov), including all usable equipment and machinery, were unified into a single enterprise in 1946 by the new Yugoslav Communist occupational government.

Although Zara was still formally under Italian sovereignty until 1947, the Yugoslavs were already sequestering private property and goods. The old Luxardo distillery, reduced to almost total ruin by Allied bombs, was rebuilt in the same location and designed to look identical to the original building. By 1946 the Yugoslavs were producing and selling their own version of Maraschino liqueur.

The Luxardo family had suffered aerial bombardments, the loss of their home and business, the confiscation of their assets, and the death of multiple family members. Now, adding insult to injury, the Yugoslavs pretended to imitate Luxardo's Maraschino recipe and fraudulently re-bottled it under the same name, using the old bottles and original labels found in the ruins of Luxardo's warehouses.

Maraschino was a trademark owned by the Luxardo family, and they were determined to take legal action against this Yugoslav impersonation. In the end the Luxardo family was victorious, winning every court case in Italy, Switzerland, Germany and the United States. After numerous legal battles, in 1949 the Yugoslav company was forced to change its name from Maraschino to Maraska, a Croatian moniker based on the original Italian name. Lawsuits against Maraska continued until the 1960's, and all decisions were won by Luxardo.

The Usurpation of Maraschino by Croatia: Maraska's Fraud and Dishonesty

The Maraska company, founded by the Communist regime in 1946, still operates today in modern Croatia. However, the company has never acknowledged its controversial origins, nor its Communist past, and has never offered any compensation to Luxardo.

Maraska falsely labels its
product as the “Original”
Today Maraska continues to appropriate the legacy of Maraschino by upholding themselves as the heirs of Italo-Dalmatian tradition and continues to falsely label their products with the name “Original Maraschino”. Despite having no legitimate connection to Zara's original Italian liqueur companies – other than confiscating its properties and imitating its products – the Croatian company insists on tracing its own history through Luxardo, Drioli, Vlahov and the Italian Dalmatian community, without acknowledging the seizure of assets, the trademark infringements, the false advertising, the marketing schemes, the ethnic cleansing of Italians and the massacre of the Luxardo family.

Maraska's official website merely states that several factories were destroyed and rebuilt after the war, and that the three main Maraschino liqueur distilleries were merged and reconstituted as the Maraska company in 1946. But this short and misleading version of events completely glosses over the traumatic events and criminal history upon which the Maraska company was built.

Maraska's official website also falsely asserts that the maraschino cherry tree grows only in the area around Zara, in Dalmatia, thereby implying that they are the only only ones capable of producing authentic Maraschino liqueur. In fact the same maraschino cherries are grown by the Luxardo family in the Euganean Hills in Italy, derived from the same cherry trees grown around Zara, thanks to the saplings that were saved by Prof. Morettini and brought to Italy prior to the Yugoslav occupation.

On several occasions – during the period of the Yugoslav regime and after Croatian independence – the Luxardo family requested the return of personal assets, including art collections and family real estate, among them the old distillery building and former Luxardo home in Zara, but all requests have been rejected or ignored.

The landmark Luxardo distillery – ruined and seized by the Yugoslav Communists, and subsequently transformed into the Maraska factory after the war – was recently purchased by a private Turkish bank, the Dogus Group, and will soon become a Hyatt Regency hotel. The Maraska company sold the property and moved to a different location in 2006. Compensation has still never been offered to Luxardo by Maraska, nor by the Dogus Group.

Luxardo Today

Luxardo continues to produce Maraschino according to Maria Canevari's original recipe, as it was written down in 1821. The current distillery is located in the small town of Torreglia in the Euganean Hills, near Padua, in the region of Veneto, Italy, where the Luxardo family exclusively cultivates over 30,000 maraschino cherry trees – derived from the original maraschino cherry trees of Dalmatia – in what is today the largest cherry tree orchard in the world.

To date Luxardo's internationally renown Maraschino has won more than 56 gold medals in liqueur contests around the world. In 2011 alone, seven of Luxardo's liqueurs were awarded twelve bronze, silver and gold medals in international competitions. Luxardo products are currently exported to every continent and to more than 78 countries around the world.

See also:
The History of the Luxardo Company
The History of Maraschino
The Luxardo Distillery: How the Croats Attempted to Usurp the Brand

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

The History of the Luxardo Company

Founded by the Luxardo Family in Zara, 1821

Luxardo (officially Girolamo Luxardo S.p.A.) is an Italian brand of liqueur most famous for producing Maraschino, a liqueur made from the distillation of fermented maraschino cherries. Luxardo is one of the oldest liqueur producers in Europe and still remains a small family-owned business, owned and operated by the Luxardo family for nearly 200 years.

The First Generation

The Luxardo company was founded in Zara, a port city of Dalmatia, in 1821 by Girolamo Luxardo. At this time Zara was a city of Italian language, culture and ethnic population, and had recently passed from the sovereignty of the Republic of Venice to the Austrian Empire.

Girolamo Luxardo was an entrepreneur and diplomat, born in Santa Margherita Ligure, located near Genoa, on September 29, 1784. Serving as a consular representative of the King of Sardinia to Dalmatia, he moved to Zara with his family in 1817.

Girolamo Luxardo
His wife Marchesa Maria Canevari was interested in perfecting a recipe for Maraschino, a unique type of cherry liqueur produced in Venetian Dalmatia since 1730 by Barolomeo Ferrari and Giuseppe Carceniga. Some allege it was produced as early as the 16th century by Catholic monks at the Dominican monastery of Zara, but this remains unproven. Maria personally produced her own Maraschino at home and it immediately attracted the attention of family, friends and connoisseurs.

In 1821 Luxardo founded a distillery in Zara to produce Maraschino liqueur. After eight years of research to perfect the product, in 1829 he obtained a special privilege from the Emperor of Austria, the “Privilegiata Fabbrica Maraschino Excelsior”. This was a valuable and cherished recognition of the superior quality of Luxardo liqueur, and moreover it granted the Luxardo company exclusive rights to produce Maraschino for the next fifteen years.

Luxardo would go on to become one of the most popular and prestigious brands of Maraschino liqueur, even rivaling the much older company of Drioli, founded in 1759 by the Istrian-Venetian merchant Francesco Drioli, who was the first to bottle and produce Maraschino on an industrial scale, thereby establishing the modern Maraschino industry of Zara. Already in 1864 Luxardo Maraschino was being exported and sold in the United States, and soon Luxardo would surpass Drioli in fame and popularity.

The Second Generation

Girolamo Luxardo died on September 8, 1865 at age 81, and his son Nicolò Luxardo I (1815-1882) took over the business. Taking the reins from his father Girolamo, Nicolò I played a vital role in the company by establishing relationships with prestigious markets all around the world. Luxardo's first advertisement posters were printed in 1874 and distributed throughout Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. This was not only a first for Luxardo, but also the first recorded advertising campaign for a liqueur in history.

The Third Generation
Luxardo Family Gathering, 1875
Demetrio I (first from left); Michelangelo
(second from left); Nicolò I (third from left)

Luxardo was inherited by Demetrio Luxardo I (1852-1906) and Michelangelo Luxardo (1857-1934). Demetrio I was the first master distiller. He invented new products and refined Luxardo's Maraschino recipe. Thanks to the third Luxardo generation, a new prosperous era began for the company.

Luxardo Maraschino won a gold medal at the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis, the first ever bestowed upon a European company. The prestige and acclaim of Luxardo during this time period can be measured by the fact that Luxardo Maraschino was served aboard the RMS Titanic during its fateful voyage in 1912.

In 1913, Michelangelo built the most modern and largest distillery in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, called Casa Luxardo. This building was an imposing structure on the harbour edge, which housed not only the new distillery, but also the offices and the private apartments of the Luxardo family. The building survived World War I, but was ultimately destroyed in World War II.

Some setbacks occurred for Luxardo during World War I. The loss of the Russian market, caused by the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, led to a sharp decline in sales. In addition, the requisition of machinery and metal materials by the Austrian government in 1916-1918 significantly impoverished the Luxardo factory of its vital equipment.

The Patriotism of the Luxardo Family

The Luxardo's were known to be Italian patriots. Their signature design was inspired by the Italian tricolour: a green bottle with a red cap and a white label written in Italian. All of Michelangelo's sons were sent to study at universities in Italy. Nicolò Luxardo II (1886-1944), Michelangelo's eldest son and future heir, risked being executed for treason by joining the Italian Army in World War I, where he earned two Silver Medals of Military Valour as a cavalry officer. In this period, the Luxardo family proudly supported the unification of Dalmatia with the Kingdom of Italy.

Luxardo Poster, 1939
Sangue Morlacco (‘Morlach Blood’) became Luxardo's second specialty after Maraschino. Originally called Cherry Brandy, it was renamed by the Italian warrior-poet Gabriele D'Annunzio in 1919, during the Fiume Expedition, when a group of Italian legionaries occupied the city of Fiume and established the short-lived Italian Regency of Carnaro. One of these legionaries was Pietro Luxardo (1892-1944), Michelangelo's second son.

The Morlachs were a Latin people of the Dalmatian hinterland who defended the borders of the Republic of Venice against the Turks in the 17th and 18th centuries. Due to the liqueur's dark red colour, resembling the blood shed by the Morlachs under the banner of Venice, D'Annunzio nicknamed it Sangue Morlacco. The name was officially adopted by Luxardo and has continued to be used ever since.

The Fourth Generation

In 1922 the company was taken over by the fourth generation, Michelangelo's four sons: Nicolò II, Demetrio II, Pietro and Giorgio. Under the guidance of the fourth generation, Luxardo's position significantly improved. In 1940 Demetrio II died, leaving his three brothers as the heirs.

The city of Zara had been reunited with the Kingdom of Italy since 1918, and Luxardo once again began to flourish. By the 1930's Luxardo became the largest and most important distillery in Italy. In 1936 Luxardo was responsible for 66% of Zara's liqueur exports. The company reached its peak in this period, with more than 250 employees and an industrial area covering 12,000 square meters.

Casa Luxardo — The Luxardo Distillery, built in 1913
Before its tragic destruction in World War II
However, the beginning of World War II severely hampered industrial activity. During the course of the war, Allied bombing destroyed about 80% of Zara's buildings. After indiscriminate and repeated Anglo-American bombings in 1943-1944, the Luxardo distillery was almost completely destroyed, as was nearly the entire city of Zara. A four-day fire burned several buildings and resulted in the loss of many materials, including 230,000 kg of sugar, 48,000 liters of alcohol and over one million bottles.

The war was very tragic and devastating for the Luxardo family: they lost their distillery, their home and several members of their family. They were but one of hundreds of ethnic Italian families – totaling many thousands of civilians – who were forcibly exiled from Dalmatia as a result of the war. In the end, nearly the entire Italian population of Zara was wiped out through Allied bombings, executions, deportation to concentration camps or exile. While most of the Luxardo family fled to mainland Italy between 1943-1944, some members of the family chose to remain in Zara.

Upon the arrival of Tito's Yugoslav Communist partisans in 1944, atrocities were committed against the remaining Italian population and the Luxardo family was partly exterminated. Nicolò Luxardo II and his wife Bianca Ronzoni were arrested and brutally tortured before being killed by Yugoslav partisans on September 30, 1944. Nicolò II was drowned in the Adriatic Sea, while Bianca was forced to watch. She was shot to death immediately afterward. Pietro Luxardo, who likewise had refused to leave Zara, was imprisoned by the Yugoslavs on October 30, 1944 and murdered on November 12, 1944. His remains were never found.

Pietro Luxardo and Nicolò Luxardo II
Murdered by the Yugoslavs in 1944
Giorgio Luxardo was the sole survivor of the fourth generation. Giorgio fled first to Friuli and then to the Veneto region of northeastern Italy and reconnected with a colleague who had saved the Luxardo recipe book. Perhaps even more fortunately, just prior to the war Prof. Alessandro Morettini of the University of Florence had carried maraschino cherry specimens from Dalmatia to Tuscany, where he founded a cherry tree nursery on university premises. Prof. Morettini graciously delivered these cherry saplings to Giorgio Luxardo after the war.

Armed with the surviving tools and a desire to reestablish his family's legacy, Giorgio chose the small town of Torreglia to rebuild the distillery in 1946. At this new home, Luxardo restored its extensive product line of Italian liqueurs and continued to export the products to markets around the world.

The Usurpation of Maraschino by Yugoslavia

In 1944, before the end of World War II, the Yugoslavs illegally seized all of Luxardo's assets and nationalized them. Assets which were confiscated from all the historic liqueur factories of Zara (Luxardo, Drioli and Romano Vlahov), including all usable equipment and machinery, were unified into a single enterprise in 1946 by the new Yugoslav Communist occupational government.

Although Zara was still formally under Italian sovereignty until 1947, the Yugoslavs were already sequestering private property and goods. The old Luxardo distillery, reduced to almost total ruin by Allied bombs, was rebuilt in the same location and designed to look identical to the original building. By 1946 the Yugoslavs were producing and selling their own version of Maraschino, attempting to pass it off as the same one made by Luxardo.
The city of Zara, 1943-1944
Destroyed by Allied Bombings

The Luxardo family had suffered aerial bombardments, the loss of their home and business, the confiscation of their assets, and the death of multiple family members. Now, adding insult to injury, the Yugoslavs pretended to imitate Luxardo's Maraschino recipe and fraudulently re-bottled it under the same name, using the old bottles and original labels found in the ruins of Luxardo's warehouses.

Maraschino was a trademark owned by the Luxardo family, and they were determined to take legal action against this Yugoslav impersonation. After numerous legal battles, the Yugoslav company in 1949 was forced to change its name from Maraschino to Maraska, a Croatian moniker based on the original Italian name. Other lawsuits against Maraska continued until the 1960's. In the end the Luxardo family was victorious, winning every court case in Italy, Switzerland, Germany and the United States; in each proceeding all decisions were won by Luxardo.

The Usurpation of Maraschino by Croatia

The Maraska company, founded by the Communist regime in 1946, still operates today in modern Croatia. However, the company has never acknowledged its controversial origins, nor its Communist past, and has never offered any compensation to Luxardo.

Today Maraska continues to appropriate the legacy of Maraschino by upholding themselves as the heirs of Italo-Dalmatian tradition and continues to falsely label their products with the name “Original Maraschino”. Despite having no legitimate connection to Zara's original Italian liqueur companies – other than confiscating its properties and imitating its products – the Croatian company insists on tracing its own history through Luxardo, Drioli, Vlahov and the Italian Dalmatian community, without acknowledging the seizure of assets, the trademark infringements, the false advertising, the marketing schemes, the ethnic cleansing of Italians and the massacre of the Luxardo family.

Maraska's official website merely states that several factories were destroyed and rebuilt after the war, and that the three main Maraschino liqueur distilleries were merged and reconstituted as the Maraska company in 1946. But this short and misleading version of events completely glosses over the traumatic events and criminal history upon which the Maraska company was built.

The Former Luxardo Distillery in Zara, Dalmatia
Illegally occupied by the Maraska Company from 1946-2006

Maraska's official website also falsely asserts that the maraschino cherry tree grows only in the area around Zara, in Dalmatia, thereby implying that they are the only only ones capable of producing authentic Maraschino liqueur. In fact the same maraschino cherries are grown by the Luxardo family in the Euganean Hills in Italy, derived from the same cherry trees grown around Zara, thanks to the saplings that were saved by Prof. Morettini and brought to Italy prior to the Yugoslav occupation.

On several occasions – during the period of the Yugoslav regime and after Croatian independence – the Luxardo family requested the return of personal assets, including art collections and family real estate, among them the old distillery building and former Luxardo home in Zara, but all requests have been rejected or ignored.

The landmark Luxardo distillery – ruined, seized and restored after the war by the Yugoslavs, and subsequently transformed into the Maraska factory – was recently purchased by a private Turkish bank, the Dogus Group, and will soon become a Hyatt Regency hotel. The Maraska company sold the property and moved to a different location in 2006. Compensation has still never been offered to Luxardo by Maraska, nor by the Dogus Group.

Today

Luxardo continues to produce Maraschino according to Maria Canevari's original recipe, as it was written down in 1821. The current distillery is located in the small town of Torreglia in the Euganean Hills, near Padua, in the region of Veneto, Italy, where the Luxardo family exclusively cultivates over 30,000 maraschino cherry trees – derived from the original maraschino cherry trees of Dalmatia – in what is today the largest cherry tree orchard in the world.

The Current Luxardo Distillery, built in 1946
In the small town of Torreglia, Italy

Until recently, Luxardo was operated by Franco Luxardo of the family's fifth generation, along with members of the sixth generation. Today, the company is headed by the sixth generation: Piero Luxardo Franchi, Guido Luxardo, Giorgio Luxardo II, Matteo Luxardo and Filippo Luxardo. The seventh generation is also just now starting and is represented by Nicolò Luxardo IV and Gaia Luxardo, the first female family member to join the company.

To date Luxardo's internationally renown Maraschino has won more than 56 gold medals in liqueur contests around the world. In 2011 alone, seven of Luxardo's liqueurs were awarded twelve bronze, silver and gold medals in international competitions. The company also produces a variety of other classic Italian liqueurs, including Sambuca, Amaretto, Grappa, Limoncello, Sangue Morlacco and Passione Nera. Besides its famous liqueurs, a second line of Luxardo products now includes a gourmet division with liqueur concentrates, fruit syrups, Maraschino cherries and jams.

Luxardo products are currently exported to every continent and to more than 78 countries around the world. The main export countries of Luxardo products are the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Japan and continental Europe.

See also:
The History of Maraschino
The Luxardo Distillery: How the Croats Attempted to Usurp the Brand
Luxardo Maraschino vs. Croatian Maraska

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Famous Italians From Dalmatia

Some notable Dalmatian Italians (from left to right): Elio Lampridio Cerva, Marino Ghetaldi,
Fausto Veranzio, Giorgio Baglivi, Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich & Niccolò Tommaseo

(Full biographies: Italian Biographies: Dalmatia)

Brief biographies of some famous Dalmatian Italians, an indigenous ethnic group from Dalmatia. The Dalmatian Italians have an illustrious history and have made notable contributions to culture, religion, military, politics, literature, arts, sciences and civilization, which should not be forgotten.

Dalmatia is a historical Italian region which is today divided between Croatia and Montenegro. The Dalmatian Italians, who have inhabited the region for more than 2000 years, declined in number after the 16th century due to war, pestilence and the migration of Slavic refugees, but continued to form a majority until the 17th century and continued to predominate in all the coastal cities until the 19th and 20th centuries. At the turn of the 19th century, one third of the Dalmatian population was Italian.

The Dalmatian Italians faced persecution and discrimination under the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the decades before World War I, the Habsburg government and Pan-Slavists pursued a systematic policy of Slavicization and de-Italianization of Dalmatia, so that by the end of the war the Dalmatian Italians were reduced to a small minority in their own land. The Treaty of Versailles assigned most of Dalmatia to Yugoslavia, causing thousands of Dalmatian Italians to flee to Italy. The Treaty of Rome restored one third of Dalmatia to Italy, allowing the Dalmatian Italians to return home.

Towards the end of World War II the Dalmatian Italians were again targeted and subjected to ethnic cleansing by the Yugoslavs, who invaded Italian Dalmatia and annexed it to Communist Yugoslavia in 1947. About 350,000 Italians from Dalmatia, Istria and the surrounding region of Julian Venetia were forced into exile after the war. Their homes and property were confiscated and their cities were occupied by the Yugoslavs. The Dalmatian Italians and their exiled descendants patiently await the return of their homeland to Italy.

  Paolo Andreis - Italian historian
  Thomas the Archdeacon - Italian historian and priest
  Arnolfo Bacotich - Italian historian and journalist
  Giorgio Baglivi - Italian anatomist, medical scientist and physician
  Antonio Bajamonti - Italian physician and politician
  Giulio Bajamonti - Italian composer, physician, philosopher, polygraph and historian
  Anselmo Banduri - Italian monk, scholar, archaeologist and numismatist
  Federico Bencovich - Italian painter
  Francesco Antonio Bertuccio - Italian diplomat, friar and knight
  Gian Francesco Biondi - Italian writer, diplomat and historian
  Girolamo Bisanti - Italian naval captain; commander in the Battle of Lepanto
  Trifone Bisanti - Italian theologian, diplomat, scholar and bishop
  Savino de Bobali - Italian poet
  Giovanni Bona de Boliris - Italian poet and writer
  Francesco Bolizza - Italian diplomat and courier
  Mariano Bolizza - Italian diplomat, writer, poet and priest
  Natale Bonifacio - Italian carver and engraver
  Bonino de Boninis - Italian publisher, typographer and priest
  Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich - Italian scientist, mathematician, priest and polymath
  Domenico Bucchia - Italian theologian and priest
  Vincenzo Bucchia - Italian theologian and bishop
  Bernardo Caboga - Italian nobleman and military commander
  Biagio Caboga - Italian diplomat and nobleman
  Biagio Bernardo Caboga - Italian nobleman and military commander
  Marino Caboga - Italian lawyer and priest
  Francesco Carrara - Italian archaeologist and priest
  Pietro Canavelli - Italian poet and translator
  Marco de Casotti - Italian journalist and novelist
  Elio Lampridio Cerva - Italian poet and lexicographer
  Serafino Cerva - Italian scholar and priest
  Alvise Cippico - Italian bishop and archbishop
  Alvise Cippico (Luigi Cipoco) - Italian naval captain; commander in the Battle of Lepanto
  Antonio Cippico - Italian politician, poet, patriot, journalist and lecturer
  Coriolano Cippico - Italian historian, landowner and military commander
  Trifone Cocoglia - Italian painter
  Arturo Colautti - Italian journalist, writer and librettist
  Benedetto Cotrugli - Italian merchant, economist and diplomat
  Giovanni Creglianovich-Albinoni - Italian writer, librettist and playwright
  Federico Crisogono - Italian physician and scientist
  Raimondo Cunich - Italian latinist and priest
  Giulio Camillo Delminio - Italian philosopher
  Francesco Suppé Demelli - Italian composer
  Vincenzo Drago - Italian historian
  Francesco Salghetti-Drioli - Italian painter and entrepreneur
  Alessandro Dudan - Italian historian and politician
  Vincenzo Duplancich - Italian journalist, writer and politician
  Roberto Ferruzzi - Italian painter
  Riccardo Forster - Italian poet, journalist and theatre critic
  Giovanni Francesco Fortunio - Italian grammarian, jurist and politician
  Angelo Antonio Frari - Italian physician
  Giuseppe Frari - Italian physician
  Luigi Frari - Italian physician and politician
  Michele Carlo Frari - Italian obstetrician and inventor
  Marco Faustino Gagliuffi - Italian poet
  Bernardino Gallelli - Italian ecclesiastic
  Marino Ghetaldi - Italian scientist and mathematician
  Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola - Italian politician
  Roberto Ghiglianovich - Italian politician, lawyer and patriot
  Ignazio Giorgi - Italian historian, poet, priest and abbot
  Paladino Gondola - Italian diplomat and merchant
  Nicolò Vito di Gozze - Italian philosopher and politician
  Stefano Gradi - Italian scientist, philosopher, poet and priest
  Gasparo Graziani - Italian polyglot and diplomat; Voivode of Moldavia
  Pope John IV - Italian ecclesiastic; pope
  Natale Krekich - Italian politician and patriot
  Luigi Lapenna - Italian politician
  Francesco Laurana - Italian architect, sculptor and medalist
  Luciano Laurana - Italian architect
  Francesco Leonardi - Italian bishop and missionary
  Giovanni Eleuterio Lovrovich - Italian historian and priest
  Antonio Lubin - Italian writer, teacher and priest
  Giovanni Lucio - Italian historian
  Lorenzo Doimi de Lupis - Italian physician and nobleman
  Girolamo Luxardo - Italian entrepreneur and diplomat; founder of Luxardo liqueur
  Francesco Malipiero - Italian abbot and archbishop
  Girolamo Manfrin - Italian entrepreneur
  Bernardino Marin - Italian bishop
  Giorgio Martinuzzi - Italian statesman, cardinal, archbishop and monk; Regent of Hungary
  Lino Maupas - Italian friar
  Andrea Meldolla - Italian painter and etcher
  Luigi Mion - Italian painter
  Raffaele Molin - Italian scientist, physician, zoologist and geologist
  Michele Monaldi - Italian mathematician, philosopher and poet
  Pietro Doimo Munzani - Italian archbishop
  Nino Nutrizio - Italian journalist and football coach
  Giorgio Orsini da Sebenico - Italian architect, sculptor and urbanist
  Giovanni Battista Benedetti Paladini - Italian naval captain; commander in the Battle of Lepanto
  Nicolò Paladini - Italian naval captain
  Paolo Paladini - Italian poet and naval captain
  Pier Alessandro Paravia - Italian writer, philologist, philanthropist and professor
  Ludovico Pasquali - Italian poet and soldier
  Antonio Pini-Corsi - Italian operatic baritone
  Giuseppe Praga - Italian historian and archivist
  Domenico Ragnina - Italian poet
  Giorgio Raguseo - Italian philosopher, philologist, mathematician, physician and priest
  Oscar Randi - Italian historian
  Francesco Rismondo - Italian soldier and patriot
  Benedetto Rogacci - Italian theologian, grammarian, poet and priest
  Romeo Romei - Italian naval officer, corvette captain and submarine commander
  Martino Rota - Italian engraver, etcher, painter and cartographer
  Giuseppe Sabalich - Italian historian, journalist and poet
  Franco Sacchetti - Italian poet and novelist
  Leonardo Salimbeni - Italian engineer and mathematician
  Ercolano Salvi - Italian politician and patriot
  Giorgio Schiavone - Italian painter
  Federico Seismit-Doda - Italian politician, patriot and journalist
  Giovanni Soglian - Italian teacher and linguist
  Luca Sorgo - Italian composer
  Benedetto Stay - Italian poet and priest
  Giovanni Domenico Stratico - Italian bishop and theologian
  Michele Stratico - Italian composer and violinist
  Simone Stratico - Italian mathematician, physicist and nautical scientist
  Antonio Tacconi - Italian politician
  Ildebrando Tacconi - Italian historian, lecturer and scholar
  Niccolò Tommaseo - Italian linguist, writer and patriot
  Ruggero Tommaseo - Italian journalist, writer and patriot
  Biagio di Giorgio da Traù - Italian painter
  Nicolò Trigari - Italian politician
  Ludovico Cerva Tuberone - Italian historian
  Antonio Varisco - Italian carabiniere officer
  Giorgio Ventura - Italian painter
  Antonio Veranzio - Italian cardinal, archbishop and diplomat
  Fausto Veranzio - Italian philosopher, historian, bishop, inventor, lexicographer and polymath
  Roberto de Visiani - Italian botanist, naturalist, physician and scholar
  Bernardo Zamagna - Italian poet, translator, theologian and priest
  Luigi Ziliotto - Italian politician, lawyer and patriot
  Bernardo Zuzzeri - Italian missionary and priest
  Flora Zuzzeri - Italian poetess
  Giovanni Luca Zuzzeri - Italian numismatist, archaeologist and priest