Saturday, May 30, 2015

Historical Timeline of Istria (Condensed)

A condensed chronology of events since the beginning of recorded history.

Prehistory - Istria is inhabited by the Euganei, a proto-Italic or Ligurian tribe, followed by the Italic Veneti and the Histri.

221-220 BC - First Istrian War; after numerous attacks on Roman vessels, the Romans launch a campaign against the Histri, a tribe of pirates related to the Veneti of northeastern Italy; the Histri become tributaries of Rome.

178-177 BC - Second Istrian War; after further raids and attacks against the Romans, the Romans conquer the Histri; Istria becomes definitively part of the Roman Republic.

178-177 BC - A military post is established by the Romans on the site which later became Pola; the military camp of Castrum Muglae (Muggia) is founded by the Romans; the military camp of Castrum Portulense (Portole) is founded by the Romans; the military camp of Bullea (Buie) is founded by the Romans; the military camp of Parentium (Parenzo) is founded by the Romans; the city of Flanona (Fianona) is founded by the Romans; the port and city of Haliaetum is founded by the Romans near the site which later became Isola d'Istria.

128 BC - The city of Tergeste or Tergestum (Trieste) becomes a Roman colony.

128 BC - The city of Egida (Capodistria) is founded by the Romans and becomes a Roman colony.

60 BC - The city of Tarsatica (Fiume) is founded by the Romans.

46-45 BC - The city of Pola is established as a Roman colony.

43-42 BC - Pola is destroyed during the Liberators' Civil War, part of the Roman Civil Wars, but is subsequently rebuilt and renamed Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea.

35 BC - The city of Tarsatica (Fiume) is renamed Flumen and becomes a Roman colony.

33-32 BC - The city of Tergeste or Tergestum (Trieste) is fortified by the Romans.

14 BC - The city and colony of Arupenum or Ruginium (Rovigno) is founded by the Romans on the site of an ancient castle.

12 BC - Istria is included in Regio X Venetia et Histria (the tenth region of Italy), with the city of Aquileia as the capital, under Emperor Augustus.

12 BC - Parenzo officially becomes a city and is established as a Roman colony called Colonia Iulia Parentium.

56 AD - The city of Egida (Capodistria) is converted to Christianity by St. Elio, a disciple of St. Ermagora, the first Bishop of Aquileia. This is the first city of Istria to embrace Christianity.

78-79 AD - The Via Flavia is built, a Roman road running through Istria, connecting Trieste with Dalmatia. This route still remains the primary route in Istria today.

247-249 AD - The Roman city of Albona is declared a republic (Res Publica Albonessium) by Emperor Philippus II.

293 AD - Istria remains included in Venetia et Histria (the tenth region of Italy), within the Diocese and Praetorian Prefecture of Italy, in accordance with the reforms of Emperor Diocletian.

300's AD - A Christian basilica, one of the earliest in Istria, is built in the village of Ursaria (Orsera) by Roman Christians.

300's AD - A Christian basilica dedicated to St. Maurus (the first Bishop of Parenzo, martyred in 305 AD) is built in the city of Parenzo by the Romans on the site of the later Euphrasian basilica.

347 AD - St. Jerome is born in the village of Strido (Stridone/Sdregna) in Portole.

452 AD - The Roman city and colony of Emona (Lubiana/Ljubljana) is destroyed by the Huns; the surviving Roman inhabitants flee to Istria and found the new city of Emona or Civitas Nova (Cittanova d'Istria).

452 AD - The Roman city and colony of Aquileia is sacked and destroyed by the Huns; the surviving Roman inhabitants flee to the Venetian Lagoon and found the city of Venice; other Roman survivors from Aquileia flee to Istria and found the city of Pirano on the site of old Roman villas.

476 AD - The Roman Empire collapses in the West.

476 AD - Istria is included in the Kingdom of Italy under Flavius Odoacer, King of Italy.

493 AD - Istria is included in the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy under Theodoric.

538 AD - Istria is recaptured by the Romans during the Justinian reconquest of Italy.

543-553 AD - The Euphrasian Basilica of Parenzo, one of the best surviving examples of Christian Roman architecture in Istria, is built by order of Euphrasius, Bishop of Parenzo.

546 AD - St. Maximianus, an Istrian from Vistrum (Vestre) near Pola, becomes the first Archbishop of Ravenna.

568 AD - Romans from the city of Trieste, fleeing the Longobard invaders, settle in the city of Capodistria.

584 AD - Istria is included in the Exarchate of Italy under Decius, Exarch of Italy.

587 AD - Istria is raided and pillaged by the Longobards.

589 AD - The Great Flood of 589; Istria is stuck by a deluge, devastating several villages.

599-600 AD - Istria is ravaged by the invasions of the Avars and the Slavs; many cities of the interior are destroyed, including the city of Albona.

604-605 AD - Istria and the Carso region are raided by the Slavs.

611 AD - Istria is again raided by the Slavs; the Numerus Tergestinus (a military district) is established in Istria in order to prevent the Slavs from entering Istria.

641 AD - Pope John IV transfers the relics of St. Maurus from the Euphrasian Basilica in Parenzo to the Lateran Basilica in Rome, in order to protect the relics from the Slavic invaders.

732 AD - The churches of Istria are placed under the ecclesiastical authority of the Patriarch of Grado by the Lateran Council in Rome.

751 AD - Istria is included in the Longobard Kingdom of Italy under Aistulf, King of Italy.

788-789 AD - Istria is included in the Carolingian Kingdom of Italy under Pepin, King of Italy.

799 AD - The March of Istria (a frontier land within the Kingdom of Italy, designed to protect Italy from invaders and keep the Avars, Slavs and Magyars out of Italy) is established.

800's AD - Slavs begin to settle in Istria for the first time.

804 AD - The population of Istria holds an assembly at Risano in Capodistria and issues the Placito del Risano (Placitum of Risano), complaining to Charlemagne of Slavic immigrants settling in their land. The representatives of Charlemagne agree to stop the Slavic immigration in Istria.

812 AD - The Peace of Aachen (an agreement between Charlemagne and the Byzantine Empire) is signed; the Byzantines recognize Charlemagne as Emperor and renounce their claims to Istria.

825 AD - Dicuilus, an Irish monk and geographer, in De mensura orbis terrae, describes the Arsia River in Istria as the northeastern boundary of Italy.

827 AD - The city of Salvore is raided by Slavic pirates.

836 AD - Pietro Tradonico, an Istrian from the city of Pola, becomes the thirteenth Doge of Venice.

840 AD - The Pactum Lotharii (a joint agreement between the Venetians and the Italian cities under Lothair I, King of Italy, to combat Slavic piracy in Istria and the Adriatic Sea) is signed.

843 AD - The Treaty of Verdun is signed; Middle Francia is established; Istria is included in the Kingdom of Italy, within Middle Francia, under Lothair I, King of Italy.

855 AD - Middle Francia ceases to exist; Istria is included in the Kingdom of Italy under Louis II, King of Italy.

864 AD - Orso I Participazio, Doge of Venice, defeats the Slavic pirates in the Adriatic Sea and forces them to return stolen goods to the churches and people of Istria.

865 AD - The city of Rovigno is raided by Slavic pirates.

872 AD - Fourteen Venetian sailors, while attempting to investigate Saracen piracy in Istria, are slaughtered by Slavic pirates off the coast of Salvore in Istria. The Slavs then proceeded to plunder the Istrian coast.

874 AD - Pope John VIII writes a letter to the Croatian pirate Domagoj, pleading for him to stop the Slavic raids and piracy against the Christians of Italy and Istria.

876 AD - The Istrian coast is raided by Slavic pirates led by the Croatian pirate Domagoj; the cities of Umago, Emonia (Cittanova d'Istria) and Rovigno are sacked and nearly destroyed; the city of Siparo is completely destroyed.

880 AD - The cities of Umago, Emonia (Cittanova d'Istria) and Rovigno, as well as Muggia, are again attacked by Slavic pirates. Many Istrians are murdered and enslaved by the Slavs.

882 AD - The city of Capodistria becomes a tributary of Venice in exchange for protection against Slavic pirates.

887 AD - The city of Rovigno is again terrorized and attacked by Slavic pirates.

932 AD - The city of Capodistria signs a trade agreement with Venice in exchange for protection against Slavic pirates.

933 AD - The Peace of Rialto is signed between the Venetians, the Margrave of Istria and the bishops and representatives of the cities of Pola, Parenzo, Cittanova d'Istria, Pirano, Capodistria, Muggia and Trieste (all of which had been previously attacked by the Slavs). The agreement grants special privileges to Venice in exchange for Venetian protection over Istria, intended to prevent attacks by Slavic pirates against Istria and the Italian mainland.

952 AD - Istria is seized by Otto I of Germany and given to the Dukes of Bavaria; Istria becomes seemingly separated from Italy for the first time in recorded history.

960 AD - The Istrian coast is raided by Slavic pirates.

961 AD - The city of Parenzo is raided by Slavic pirates; the Euphrasian Basilica is nearly destroyed.

965 AD - The city of Rovigno is attacked by Slavic pirates.

965 AD - The Patriarch of Aquileia writes to the Bishop of Parenzo, giving to him the city of Duecastelli and referring to the Slavs as “nefarious and cruel Slavic barbarians.”

976 AD - The Duchy of Carinthia is established by Otto II of Germany; Istria is given to the Dukes of Carinthia.

977 AD - The city of Capodistria reaffirms its agreement with Venice; Capodistria and Venice agree to eternal peace between the two cities.

980 AD - Istria is raided by Slavic pirates.

983 AD - Castrum Pisinum (Castle of Pisino, around which grew the city of Pisino), built to guard Istria against Slavic invaders, is recorded for the first time in a confirmation of donation to the Bishop of Parenzo.

983 AD - The Bishops of Parenzo assume temporal power and become the Counts of Orsera. The cities of Nigrignano, Valle d'Istria, Rovigno, Torre-Abrega, Cervara, Montona, Sanvincenti, Antignana, Fontane, Caschierga, Rosario, Visignano, Pisino, Pisinvecchio, Gimino and others are soon added to their territory.

992 AD - The cities of Pola and Parenzo offer to become vassals of Venice in gratitude for the Venetians defending Istria against the Slavs.

997 AD - Venice, in alliance with the cities of Istria, Dalmatia, the Quarnaro and Trieste, launches a campaign against the Slavic pirates of the Adriatic.

1002 AD - The Monastery of San Michele di Leme (then part of the city of San Lorenzo, today part of Orsera) and the Monastery of Santa Petronilla in Duecastelli are founded by the Italian monk St. Romualdo, founder of the Camaldolese Order; St. Romualdo then retires to the Grotta di San Romualdo, a cave or grotto on the Canale di Leme in Istria.

1012 AD - The cities of Pedena, Pisino and Fianona are given to the Patriarch of Aquileia.

1012 AD - Poppo I of Weimar, after inheriting several large estates in Istria through his wife, proclaims himself the Margrave of Istria.

1028 AD - The southern and eastern parts of Istria, including the cities of Dignano, Barbana, Albona, Castua, Apriano, Draga di Moschiena, the entire Val d'Arsa and Fiume, are given to the Bishops of Pola, who become the Counts of Pola.

1028 AD - Several Istrian cities, including the cities of Gradena and San Lorenzo, are given to the Patriarchs of Aquileia.

1040 AD - The March of Istria is reestablished by Henry III of Germany and taken from the Dukes of Carinthia; both Istria and Carinthia are given to Poppo I of Weimar.

1077 AD - The Patria del Friuli is established under the temporal rule of the Patriarchs of Aquileia; the March of Istria is given to the Patriarchs of Aquileia.

1081 AD - The temporal power of the Bishops of Parenzo comes to an end; the territories of the Bishops of Parenzo are given to the Patriarchs of Aquileia.

1102 AD - The Margrave of Istria donates all of his Istrian assets, including the villages of San Pietro in Selve and Cosliacco in Chersano, to the Patriarch of Aquileia.

1112 AD - A dispute arises between the Patriarch of Aquileia and the Margrave of Istria; Istria is divided into the March of Istria under the Patriarch of Aquileia and the County of Istria (later called the County of Pisino) under Engelbert of Eppenstein-Sponheim, a vassal of the Patriarch of Aquileia.

1145 AD - The cities of Capodistria, Pola and Isola d'Istria swear allegiance to Venice.

1148 AD - The city of Pola becomes a tributary of Venice.

1150 AD - The Venetians defeat the Slavic pirates in the Adriatic Sea off the coast of Istria. The cities of Pola, Parenzo, Pirano, Rovigno, Cittanova d'Istria and Umago swear allegiance to Venice.

1150 AD - The Doge of Venice is proclaimed Totius Istriae Dominator (Lord of All Istria).

1150-1160 AD - The County of Istria is seized by Meinhard I, Count of Gorizia; the County of Istria comes under the rule of the Counts of Gorizia, vassals of the Patriarch of Aquileia.

1173 AD - The March of Istria is given to the Dukes of Andechs-Merania (Merano) by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.

1192 AD - The city of Parenzo becomes a tributary of Venice.

1195 AD - The city of Pola is captured by Pisa but soon returns to Venice.

1202 AD - The cities of Trieste and Muggia swear allegiance to Venice.

1209 AD - The March of Istria is returned to the Patriarchs of Aquileia.

1225 AD - Slavs from Carinthia and Carniola invade and plunder the March of Istria.

1233 AD - The city of Trieste reaffirms its loyalty and swears allegiance to Venice.

1233-1239 AD - The cities of Pola, Parenzo and Capodistria negotiate their relationship with the Patriarchs of Aquileia.

1264 AD - The cities of Montona, Parenzo, Valle d'Istria and Rovigno rise against the Patriarch of Aquileia and seek the support of Venice.

1264 AD - The city of Valle d'Istria swears allegiance to Venice.

1266 AD - The city of Rovigno swears allegiance to Venice.

1267 AD - The city of Parenzo swears allegiance to Venice.

1269 AD - The city of Umago swears allegiance to Venice.

1270 AD - The city of Cittanova d'Istria swears allegiance to Venice.

1270 AD - The city of San Lorenzo swears allegiance to Venice.

1277 AD - Slavs begin to settle in the interior of Istria.

1278 AD - The city of Montona, led by Nicolò Polesini, swears allegiance to Venice.

1279 AD - The city of Capodistria swears allegiance to Venice.

1280 AD - The city of Isola d'Istria swears allegiance to Venice.

1283 AD - The cities of Pirano and Rovigno swear allegiance to Venice.

1285 AD - The Treaty of Peace is signed between Venice, Aquileia, Gorizia and Trieste, recognizing Venetian sovereignty over the Istrian coast and restoring Venetian territories.

1287 AD - Capodistria is recaptured by Venice; siege is laid to Trieste by the Venetians.

1289 AD - The cities of Grisignana, Duecastelli, Castelvenere in Buie and others are captured by Venice.

1291 AD - The Peace of Treviso is signed, officially ending the War of Trieste and reaffirming Venetian sovereignty over much of Istria. However the cities of Muggia, Grisignana, Duecastelli, Castelvenere in Buie, Pola and others are returned to the Patriarch of Aquileia.

1295 AD - The cities of Albona, Fianona, Duecastelli, Valle d'Istria and Pinguente are occupied by the Counts of Gorizia and Pisino.

1307 AD - The Patriarch of Aquileia recognizes the perpetual rights of Venice in Istria.

1309 AD - The people of Albona and Pinguente invite Venice to occupy the cities, leading to a war between Venice and the Patriarch of Aquileia.

1314 AD - After several revolts against the Patriarchs of Aquileia, the city of Muggia swears allegiance to Venice.

1320 AD - Dante Alighieri, in the Divine Comedy, describes the city of Pola as the eastern boundary of Italy, saying “Even as Pola, near the Quarnero, which encloses Italy and bathes her borders.”

1331 AD - The Brioni Islands, being entirely depopulated, are annexed by Venice.

1331 AD - The cities of Pola, Rovigno and Parenzo swear allegiance to Venice.

1332 AD - The cities of Valle d'Istria and Dignano swear allegiance to Venice.

1343 AD - Istria is raided and plundered by bands of Slavs led by Ianos di Los (Janos of Lož).

1347-1348 AD - The Black Death arrives in Istria; two-thirds of the Istrian population is killed; half the population of Muggia is killed; one-fifth of the population of Pola is killed.

1351 AD - The city of Trieste swears allegiance to Venice.

1358 AD - The city of Buie and the villages of Villanova del Quieto and Fiorini in Verteneglio swear allegiance to Venice.

1358 AD - The city of Grisignana is purchased by Venice.

1360-1361 AD - The Black Death returns to Istria.

1368 AD - The Black Death returns to Istria again.

1368-1370 AD - War of Trieste between Venice, Trieste and the Habsburg Duchy of Austria. The city of Trieste swears allegiance to Venice.

1370 AD - The Habsburgs perpetually renounce their claims to the city of Trieste.

1371 AD - The Black Death returns to Istria.

1374 AD - The County of Istria is renamed the County of Pisino; the County of Pisino and the Lordship of Momiano, vassals of the Patriarchs of Aquileia, pass to the Habsburgs.

1378-1381 AD - War of Chioggia between Venice and Genoa; the cities of Pola, Rovigno, Parenzo, Umago and Capodistria are occupied by Genoa with the support of the Patriarch of Aquileia and the Habsburgs; the city of Pola is sacked by the Genoese; the city of Trieste is given to the Patriarch of Aquileia.

1381 AD - The Peace of Turin is signed between Venice and Genoa, ending the War of Chioggia. The Istrian coast remains under Venice, while the County of Pisino remains under the Habsburgs; the cities of Trieste, Buie, Portole, Pinguente, Albona, Fianona, Colmo, Rozzo and Duecastelli remain under the Patriarchs of Aquileia.

1382 AD - The city of Trieste, in an attempt to gain municipal autonomy, seeks the protection of the Habsburgs and enters a history separate from the rest of Istria.

1400's AD - Slavic and Morlach immigrants, seeking refuge from the Ottoman Turks, begin to arrive in Istria. This influx of Slavic and Morlach immigrant-refugees will continue for the next two centuries.

1412 AD - The cities of Buie, Portole, Rozzo and Colmo swear allegiance to Venice.

1412-1413 AD - The Hungarians raid and plunder Istria; the city of Valle d'Istria is destroyed; the city of Muggia is occupied.

1420 AD - Temporal authority of the Patriarchs of Aquileia comes to an end; the Istrian assets of the Patriarchs of Aquileia passes to Venice; the cities of Muggia, Albona and Pisino swear allegiance to Venice; almost the whole of Istria passes definitively to Venice.

1442 AD - A Franciscan monastery is founded on Isola di Sant'Andrea (Isola di Serra) in Rovigno by the Italian friar St. John of Capistrano on the site of an earlier Benedictine monastery founded by St. Maximianus of Ravenna.

1449 AD - The city of Buie permits wandering families of Morlachs to settle in the village of Bibali. This is the first Morlach settlement in Istria permitted by Venice.

1456 AD - Istria is struck by a plague, devastating the cities of Parenzo and Montona.

1463 AD - The city of Salvore, being depopulated by the Plague, is settled by Slavic immigrants. This is the first Slavic settlement in Istria permitted by Venice.

1471 AD - Istria is invaded, raided and pillaged by the Ottoman Turks.

1474 AD - Flavio Biondo, a historian and geographer, in Italia illustrata, describes Istria as one of the regions of Italy.

1476 AD - The city of Pirano permits Slavic immigrants to settle in the village of Castelvenere in Buie.

1479-1499 AD - Istria is raided and pillaged six times by the Ottomans.

1490 AD - Bands of Bosnians and Croats invade the Cicceria (Monti della Vena) and Carso regions, destroying many villages. The Carso, traditionally a woodland filled with oak trees, is destroyed in a series of forest fires set by the Slavic invaders.

1500 AD - Venice allows Morlachs to settle in the area around the city of Montona. The new Morlach settlers are described as “a swarm of barbarous and inert people.”

1508 AD - War of the League of Cambrai begins; the city of Momiano passes to Venice.

1511 AD - Istria is raided by the Ottoman Turks.

1523 AD - The villages of Sovignacco, Piemonte d'Istria, Momiano, Draguccio, Sanvincenti, Castelnuovo d'Arsa, Castagna in Grisignana, Marcenigla in Pinguente, Vetta in Pinguente, Racizze and the cities of Visinada and Medolino pass to Venice.

1535 AD - The city of Pisino passes to the Habsburgs.

1535 AD - Emperor Ferdinand I attempts to settle Slavic refugees from Bosnia and Croatia in the area of the County of Pisino, but the proposal is rejected by the Istrian population.

1546 AD - Slavic pirates known as the Uskoks begin pirating the waters of Istria and Venice.

1550 AD - Leandro Alberti, a Dominican historian, in Descrizione d'Italia, describes Istria as one of the regions of Italy.

1556 AD - Morlach and Slavic immigrants settle in the villages of Fratta in Torre-Abrega and Villanova al Leme in San Lorenzo del Pasenatico.

1557-1558 AD - Istria is struck by a plague, killing two-thirds of the population of the city of Pirano.

1561 AD - The city of Pola offers land in the countryside to foreigners in order to prevent immigration into the city; Morlachs begin to settle in the countryside outside the city of Pola.

1571 AD - Istrian and Dalmatian ships under the banner of Venice take part in the victorious Battle of Lepanto against the Ottoman Empire.

1577 AD - Istria suffers from piracy by the Slavic Uskok pirates.

1579 AD - The city of Rovigno is sacked by Slavic Uskok pirates.

1579 AD - Slavic immigrants settle in the villages of Sarezzo in Pisino, Bertossi in Montona and Braicovici in Canfanaro.

1590 AD - The city of Fianona is plundered by Slavic Uskok pirates.

1592 AD - Slavic, Albanian and Dalmatian immigrants settle in the countryside around the cities of Pola, Parenzo and Rovigno.

1594 AD - Istria is raided and pillaged by Slavic Uskok pirates.

1594 AD - Giacomo Renier, Captain of Raspo, writes to the Doge of Venice complaining of the Slavic immigrants in Istria, describing them as “Useless barbarous people, full of cowardice and gluttony, unwilling to fight and born only to get drunk... they engage in constant theft of animals and do other damage... they are full of superstitions and barbaric customs, ungodly and abhorrent to faith and devotion... they have come here to exterminate the old population and the authority of the Church and the magistrates, as is shown by their lack of respect and contempt... their ancestors arrived barefoot, naked and poor, as beggars in this country seventy-eight years ago.”

1594 AD - Cardinal Girolamo Mattei writes from Rome to the Bishop of Capodistria, forbidding the use of the Slavic language in the liturgy, saying “Those parish priests who celebrate in the Slavic language are deserving of correction and rebuke.”

1597 AD - The city of Rovigno is sacked by Slavic Uskok pirates.

1599 AD - The cities of Rovigno, Albona and Fianona are plundered by Slavic Uskok pirates in service of the Habsburgs; the Venetian flag in Fianona is removed and replaced with the Austrian flag; the population of Fianona is forced to swear allegiance to the Habsburgs; the local Italian captain Gaspare Calavani, who refused to swear allegiance, is tortured and flayed alive by the Slavic pirates.

1600's AD - Slavic immigrants, seeking refuge from the Ottoman Turks, settle in the area around the cities of Visignano and Pola.

1601 AD - Venetian expedition against the Slavic Uskok pirates.

1602-1606 AD - The Slavic Uskok pirates raid the ports of Istria.

1607 AD - The Slavic Uskok pirates plunder Venetian vessels near Parenzo and Rovigno and attack the city of Pola.

1612-1615 AD - The Slavic Uskok pirates raid and plunder Istria.

1615-1618 AD - Uskok War; the Austrians and the Slavic Uskok pirates are finally defeated by Venice.

1617 AD - Slavic and Morlach immigrants arrive in the County of Pisino.

1630-1631 AD - The Bubonic Plague arrives in Istria; the cities of Capodistria, Parenzo, Pola and Cittanova d'Istria are devastated.

1646 AD - Morlach immigrants outside the city of San Lorenzo del Paisinatico are described as “barbarous thieves and drunks.”

1656 AD - The Slavic language is introduced into the liturgy in a church in the village Costabona in Capodistria for the first time by Slavic immigrants. The Bishop of Capodistria forbids the use of the Slavic language.

1657 AD - Slavic immigrants from Cernizza (in modern Montenegro), seeking refuge from the Ottoman Turks, are permitted to settle in the village of Peroi in Dignano. This is the last Slavic immigration into Istria during the Venetian period.

1691 AD - The Bishop of Capodistria orders the Rector of Carcauzze to maintain the Italian language in parish books.

1720 AD - Gian Rinaldo Carli, an early advocate of Italian unity, is born on April 11 in the city of Capodistria.

1765 AD - Gian Rinaldo Carli publishes La Patria degli Italiani, encouraging Italian unity and patriotism.

1797 AD - The cities of Venice, Pirano, Parenzo, Montona, Rovigno, Pinguente and Pola are occupied by the forces of Napoleon and the Habsburgs; the Republic of Venice is dissolved after 1100 years of existence; the Treaty of Campo Formio is signed; Istria is annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy and is included in the Venetian Province (Duchy of Venice) under the Habsburgs.

1804 AD - The Austrian Empire is established by the Habsburgs; Istria is included as part of the Venetian Province (Duchy of Venice) within the Austrian Empire.

1805 AD - The Peace of Pressburg is signed; the Kingdom of Italy is established by Napoleon; Istria is included in the Kingdom of Italy under Napoleon, King of Italy; mandatory public education is established; Italian is established as the official language.

1809 AD - The Treaty of Schönbrünn is signed; the Illyrian Provinces are established by Napoleon; Istria and the city of Trieste are separated from Italy and included in the Illyrian Provinces within the French Empire.

1815 AD - The Congress of Vienna; Istria is annexed by the Austrian Empire.

1816 AD - The Kingdom of Illyria is established; Istria is included in the Kingdom of Illyria within the Austrian Empire.

1825 AD - The District of Istria is established as a single administrative unit, with the city of Pisino as the capital, within the Austrian Empire.

1831 AD - The Slovenian nationalist and Jansenist priest Matteo Ravnikar (Raunicher) is appointed Bishop of Trieste and Capodistria, becoming the first Slovenian bishop of these two cities. Ravnikar would spend the duration of his episcopate advocating the institutionalization of the Slavic language.

1835 AD - The Illyrian movement is founded in Zagreb; Croatian intellectuals begin to claim that Slavs are descended from Illyrians in an attempt to forge and unite South Slavs into a single nation and identity; the ideology of Illyrism is also used to justify the claim that Slavs are autochthonous in Istria and Dalmatia, and that all territories formerly inhabited in ancient times by Illyrian tribes should be annexed to a united South Slavic-Illyrian state. This pan-slavic ideology would later evolve into Yugoslavism under the influence of the liberal Croatian bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer.

1848 AD - The Revolutions of 1848; Italians, Hungarians and others revolt against the Habsburgs; the Habsburgs introduce absolutism and suppress nationalist movements and minorities, especially Italians and Hungarians.

1848 AD - Three Istrian Deputies in the Parliament of Vienna reject the proposal to include Istria in the German Confederation, saying: “Istria is essentially Italian in its language, customs, memory, religion, sympathy, monuments and geographical position. Since the thirteenth century Istria began to devote itself voluntarily to the Italian government of the Venetian Republic. No city or village of Istria, both in the interior and on the coast, speaks or writes anything other than Italian. The Slavs live isolated in only a part of the country... Above all, Istria desires it to be known that rather than endanger her Italian nationality, she renounces any material advantage which she might derive from the German Confederation.”

1849 AD - The Margraviate of Istria and the Austrian Littoral are established; the Margraviate of Istria is included in the Austrian Littoral within the Austrian Empire.

1850's AD - The Habsburgs implement a policy of Germanization throughout the Austrian Empire; German replaces Italian as the official language of the Austro-Venetian Navy (Marina Austro-Veneziana).

1856 AD - A new naval arsenal is established in the city of Pola by the Austrians, leading to a massive increase in immigration to Pola (from only 1100 inhabitants in 1850 to 10,400 in 1869, to 25,100 in 1880) and the extinction of the local Italic dialect (Istriot) spoken in the city for centuries.

1857 AD - The Croatian nationalist priest Juraj Dobrila is appointed Bishop of Parenzo and Pola by Emperor Franz Joseph, becoming the first Croatian bishop in Istrian history – part of the Habsburg policy to de-Italianize Istria. Dobrila, an advocate of Yugoslavism, would spend the duration of his episcopate attempting to create a (hitherto unknown) national consciousness in the Slavic peasants of the Istrian countryside, agitating the Slavic population against the Italian population.

1859 AD - Second Italian War of Independence; the women of Istria send the flag of the 37th Regiment to Victor Emmanuel II, King of Piedmont-Sardinia (later King of Italy) with a message saying “We, the women of Istria, send and offer this flag to you as a pledge of our tears. ... We remember that Istria has always been Italian from the time in which ancient Rome confided to it the guardianship of the most envied pass into Italy, down to the day in which her beloved banner of San Marco was buried.”

1859 AD - The Treaty of Zürich is signed; ending the Second Italian War of Independence; the terms of the Treaty establishes the formation of an Italian Confederation under the Pope, including the region of Venetia (which was to be included in the Italian Confederation, while remaining under the Austrian crown); the cities of Istria (Pirano, Parenzo, Rovigno, Dignano, Pola and Albona), led by Nicolò de Madonizza, Mayor of Capodistria, proposes that Istria be reattached to Venetia and join the Italian Confederation, but both the proposal and the Treaty terms are rejected by the Emperor Franz Joseph.

1861 AD - The Diet of Istria, a regional assembly of the Margraviate of Istria, is established, with the city of Parenzo as the capital; Italian is established as the only official language of Parliament and administration.

1866 AD - The Mayor of Gimino proposes that Italian be the only language of education, saying “Education in the Italian language is necessary... it is necessary to know Italian, not Slavic.”

1866 AD - A group of Istrians, exiled by the Austrians, write a letter to Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy, on June 18, saying “We will be the guardians of the Julian Alps; of those Alps which many times have been infringed upon by foreigners... We are the descendants of those Istrian sailors who fought and won under the glorious banner of San Marco. We will give into your hands that Pola which was an Italian naval port since the time of ancient Rome.”

1866 AD - Third Italian War of Independence (June 20 - August 12); several Istrians participate on the side of Italy, including 13 volunteers from the city of Rovigno.

1866 AD - Meeting of the Austrian Council of Ministers on November 12; the Emperor Franz Joseph expresses his intentions to denationalize (de-Italianize) Istria, Dalmatia and other Italian possessions of the Habsburgs, declaring that Austria must “decisively oppose the influence of the Italian element still present in some crown lands, and to aim unsparingly and without the slightest compunction at the Germanization or Slavicization – depending on the circumstances – of the areas in question, through a suitable entrustment of posts to political magistrates and teachers, as well as through the influence of the press in South Tyrol, Dalmatia, and the Adriatic Coast.”

1867 AD - The Compromise of 1867; the Austro-Hungarian Empire is established; the Margraviate of Istria is included in the Austrian Littoral within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

1872 AD - The Italian journal 'La Provincia dell'Istria' publishes a quote from the German historian Theodor Mommsen, describing the political situation in Istria: “The efforts to introduce Germanism have been covertly replaced with Slavism from beyond the Alps. It is always Pisino that bears the first brunt of the corrupting avalanche of foreign elements, which undermine the civilization and nationality of Istria.”

1875 AD - The Croatian nationalist priest Juraj Dobrila is appointed Bishop of Trieste and Capodistria, becoming the first Croatian bishop in these two cities – part of the Habsburg policy to de-Italianize Istria.

1877 AD - An Istrian deputy in the Parliament of Vienna accuses the Slavic clergy of altering surnames on birth and death registries, and of imposing Slavic names on Istrian children.

1890 AD - The population statistics of Istria are reported in the Austro-Hungarian census of 1890: 109,625 Italians (49.59%); 82,910 Serbo-Croats (37.50%); 22,997 Slovenians (10.40%); 5,504 Other (2.49%).

1894 AD - Revolt of the Bilingual Tables; the city of Pirano revolts after the Slavic language is introduced into the Istrian courts by the Austrians; the cities of Rovigno, Parenzo, Pola and Trieste later take part in the uprising. The revolt in Pirano is suppressed by the Austrian government with the aid of Croatian bayonets.

1895 AD -The city of Trieste attempts to erect a memorial plaque commemorating the Revolt of the Bilingual Tables, but it forbidden to do so by the Austrian government. The plaque said: “Here on November 2, 1894 the mayor and the delegates of Istria reaffirmed that human power can not erase twenty centuries of Latin life.” (“Il giorno 2 novembre 1894 qui convennero i podestà e i delegati dell'Istria a riaffermare che umano potere non cancella venti secoli di vita latina.”)

1904 AD - According to a literacy survey, 75.38% of Croats and 67.26% of Slovenes in Istria are reported as illiterate.

1910 AD - The notoriously falsified and manipulated Austro-Hungarian census of 1910 is published. The inflated population statistics of Istria are falsely reported as: 168,184 Serbo-Croats (43.5%); 147,417 Italians (38.1%); 55,134 Slovenes (14.3%); 12,735 Germans (3.3%).

1915 AD - The Treaty of London is signed, promising Istria and Dalmatia to Italy; Italy enters the First World War and declares war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

1918 AD - Italian victory in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapses.

1919-1920 AD - The Treaties of Saint-Germain and Rapallo are signed; Istria is returned to Italy and is included in the Kingdom of Italy under Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy.

1921 AD - The population statistics of the Province of Istria are reported in the Italian census of 1921: 199,942 Italians (58.2%); 90,262 Serbo-Croats (26.3%); 47,489 Slovenes (13.8%); 5,708 Other (1.7%).

1923 AD - Italian is established as the only official language of education.

1925 AD - Italian is established as the only official language of the courts.

1926-1927 AD - A law is passed permitting those whose Latin and Italian surnames were previously Germanized or Slavicized to restore and revert back to the original surname.

1927 AD - The Slovenian terrorist group TIGR (Trieste-Istria-Gorizia-Fiume) is founded by Slovenian panslavists, who engage in domestic terrorism, arson, bombings and assassinations against Italians, with the intention of annexing Istria and other Italian territories to Yugoslavia.

1935 AD - The Slovenian terrorist group TIGR officially aligns itself with Communism.

1940 AD - Italy enters the Second World War on June 10.

1943 AD - The Kingdom of Italy under Marshal Pietro Badoglio and King Victor Emmanuel III capitulate to the Allies on September 8; the Italian Social Republic is established on September 18; Istria is included in the Italian Social Republic within the OZAK (Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral); Istria officially remains under Italian sovereignty until 1947.

1943 AD - Istria is briefly occupied by the Communist Yugoslav Partisans led by Josep Broz Tito; the Foibe Massacres (genocide and ethnic cleansing of Italians by the Yugoslavs) begin; the Yugoslav Partisans are pushed out of Istria and the first foibe victims are discovered; in the end approximately 20,000 (as many as 30,000) Italians are murdered in foibe between 1943-1945.

1943 AD - The Julian-Dalmatian Exodus (Istrian Exodus) begins; approximately 350,000 Italians are forced into exile between 1943-1954 (with significant waves of exodus in 1943, 1945, 1947 and 1954); between 1943-1954 approximately 90% of the population of the city of Fiume (54,000 Italians of 60,000) is forced into exile; 94% of the population of Pola (32,000 of 34,000); 93% of Capodistria (14,000 of 15,000); 80% of Rovigno (8,000 of 10,000); 98% of Parenzo (of 4,000 only 92 remained); in the end approximately 90% of all Istrian Italians (approximately half of the total Istrian population) is forced into exile; new Yugoslav immigrants later arrive to repopulate the deserted cities.

1945 AD - The Italian Social Republic capitulates to the Allies in May, ending the Second World War in Italy; Istria is occupied by the Yugoslav Communists in May; the Morgan Line is established on June 10, dividing Istria between the occupational forces of AMGOT (Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories) and Communist Yugoslavia.

1946 AD - The Vergarola Massacre in Pola; approximately 75-100 Italians are killed.

1947 AD - The Paris Peace Treaties are signed; nearly the whole of Istria is annexed by Communist Yugoslavia under Communist dictator Josip Broz Tito. This is the first time that Istria is annexed to a Slavic state. The Free Territory of Trieste is established in the northwestern corner of Istria by the United Nations Security Council, divided into Zone A (occupied by Britain and the United States) and Zone B (occupied by Communist Yugoslavia).

1954 AD - The London Memorandum is signed; Zone A of the Free Territory of Trieste returns to Italy; Zone B remains occupied and is annexed by Communist Yugoslavia.

1975 AD - The Treaty of Osimo is signed, ending the border disputes between Italy and Yugoslavia; the treaty is widely condemned in Italy as unconstitutional; the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister of Italy are condemned as traitors by the Italian population.

1991 AD - The Breakup of Yugoslavia; Croatia and Slovenia declare independence; the Yugoslav Wars begin; Istria is occupied and divided between the new countries of Croatia and Slovenia.

1991 AD - The Italian journal 'Panorama' interviews the Yugoslav Communist politician Milovan Gilas (Milovan Đilas) on July 21; Gilas admits that “In 1946 me and Edvard Kardelj went to Istria to organize anti-Italian propaganda. It was all about proving to the Allied Commission that those lands were Yugoslav and not Italian: we organized demonstrations with banners and flags. Of course it was not true, or not entirely true. In reality Italians were the majority in the cities, but not in the villages. It was therefore necessary to employ all kinds of pressure to persuade Italians to leave. So it was told to us and so it was done.”